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This study verifies the instability of garlic Allium sativum L. Crushed fresh garlic cloves generated antibacterial activity and chemically detectable allicin, a major antibacterial principle, and both declined on a daily basis in aqueous and ethanolic solutions at room temperature, showing biological and chemical half-lives of about 6 and 11 days, respectively.
In alcoholic and aqueous extracts, the biological half-life of allicin tended to be longer than the chemical one, suggesting the occurrence of bioactive compounds other than allicin in the extracts.
Food Chem. View Author Information. Cite this: J. Article Views Altmetric. Citations Abstract This study verifies the instability of garlic Allium sativum L. Cited By. This article is cited by 73 publications. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry67 21 DOI: Nguyen T. Le, Jhansi R. Kalluri, Armando Loni, Leigh T. Canham, and Jeffery L. Molecular Pharmaceutics14 12 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry63 3 Characterization of key aroma compounds in aged garlic extract.
Food Chemistry, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry63 Large amplification of triboelectric property by allicin to develop high performance cellulosic triboelectric nanogenerator. Chemical Engineering Journal, Review: antimicrobial properties of allicin used alone or in combination with other medications.
Folia Microbiologica42 DOI: Journal of Functional Foods65 Novel ultrasonic-assisted vacuum drying technique for dehydrating garlic slices and predicting the quality properties by low field nuclear magnetic resonance. Devendran Manogaran. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis51 1 RSC Advances9 45 Alliin protects against inflammatory bowel disease by preserving the gene expression in colonic epithelial cells rather than altering gut microbiota. Journal of Functional Foods59Phytochemicals are, as the name suggests, all chemicals found in plants.
There are many different ways to categorize thousands of phytochemicals we know today. Nutritionists tend to categorize them by their possible health effects in the human body. Another way of organizing phytochemicals is into groups that share a similar chemical structure.
It is common that phytochemicals in the same class also share similar effects on the human body. Such classes of phytochemicals include:. Sometimes also referred to as phenolic compounds, phenols are a large class of phytochemicals, some of which are associated with antioxidant properties and are believed to lower the risk of heart disease and cancer. Phenols have a chemical structure that includes one or more hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring. When more than one hydroxyl group is involved, we speak of polyphenols.
Examples of phenolic phytochemicals include:. This large class includes phytochemicals believed to possess antioxidant properties and associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and cancer. Terpenes may be identified as hydrocarbons that come from isoprene which is the major type of hydrocarbon emitted by plants and trees. This class of phytochemicals includes:. Thiols organosulfur compounds. Phytochemicals in this class contain sulfur and are believed to stimulate enzymatic activity in the body, which may help to prevent carcinogens from damaging DNA.
Thiols may emit a pungent smell. Some types, such as indoles, may also act as phytoestrogens. The class of thiols includes indoles, isothiocyanates and allyl sulphides such as allicin. Indoles and isothiocyanates are found in cruciferous vegetables kale, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, horseradish, collared greens, mustard and turnips.
Allicin, often associated with garlic, is not present in garlic in its natural state but it becomes available after garlic has been chopped or crushed.
Phytic acids. These phytochemicals, also known as inositol hexaphosphate or phytate, bind to minerals and are believed to inhibit the development of free radicalswhich may lead to reduced risk of cancer.
Sources of phytic acids include nuts, oats, whole grains and legumes. These molecules are structurally similar to animal cholesterol. They are thought to compete with cholesterol from animal-based foods for absorption into the body, thus helping to lower cholesterol levels.
Rich sources of phytosterols include lettuce, nuts, capers, flaxseed and cucumbers. Protease inhibitors.The organosilicon compounds are divided into the following groups:. Compounds of the first two groups resemble the corresponding chemically analogous inorganic compounds, such as the halosilanes SiH m X 4- nsilanes Si x H yand alkoxysilanes Si OR 4.
The most important organosilicon compounds are produced on an industrial scale mainly by direct reaction of alkyl aryl chlorides with silicon in the presence of copper.
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Alkoxysilanes and acyloxysilanes are most frequently prepared by the reaction of organochlorosilanes with alcohols, acids, and other reagents. Properties and use. Almost all organosilicon compounds are colorless liquids see Table 1 ; only some of them, such as the cyclosiloxanes R 2 SiO 3are solid crystalline substances. Organosilicon compounds are readily hydrolyzed, especially the organochlorosilanes, which fume in air:.
The organohydroxysilanes that form during hydrolysis undergo intermolecular condensations leading to the formation of organosiloxanes:.
The evolved or added acid causes polycondensation, with the formation of silicones. Organosilicon compounds are readily hydrolyzed, especially the organochlorosilanes, which fume in air: The organohydroxysilanes that form during hydrolysis undergo intermolecular condensations leading to the formation of organosiloxanes: The evolved or added acid causes polycondensation, with the formation of silicones. Table 1.
Mentioned in? References in periodicals archive? The company is a global manufacturer and supplier of commercial and research quantities of organosilicon compoundsmetal-organic compounds and silicones, serving advanced technology markets. Soft silicone elastomer. Siloxanes, organosilicon compoundsand other silicon-containing compounds are found in many types of biogas; without specific methods to remove these compounds, they can survive upgrading and remain in the product biomethane.
On the other hand, Ni NTs can be functionalized by organosilicon compounds with a low toxicity. Mandryko et al  presents organic-mineral fertilizers containing peat, sapropel, manure, seston, charcoal, brown coal, bone meal and organosilicon compounds. Ivanchenko and Voloshin  proposed the technology for producing organic-mineral fertilizers from products obtained as a result of phosphates removal from urban waste water. Investigation of technologies for producing organic-mineral fertilizers and biogas from waste products.
While the QSARs for predicting the FP of organic compounds are rigorously explored, those aiming to predict the FP of organosilicon compounds are, to the authors' best knowledge, rarely reported in the literature. Predicting flash point of organosilicon compounds using quantitative structure activity relationship approach.
The organosilicon compounds are anionic synthons serving as the starting materials in the total synthesis of natural products . A novel regiospecific synthesis of 1-chloroarylcyclohexenes. Gelest, Inc.Organic Chemistry, Volume Reactions of Organosulfur Compounds covers the basics of organosulfur chemistry and the characteristics of organically bound sulfur, with an emphasis on reactions, particularly those of synthetic utility.
The book discusses the preparation, nature, stereochemical aspects, reactions, and the kinetic and thermodynamic assessment of the stability of sulfur-containing carbanions; the preparation and reactions of sulfur ylides; and the preparation, assessment of stability, and reactions of sulfur-containing carbocations. The text also describes preparation, assessment of stability, nature, and reactions of sulfur-containing radicals, organosulfur carbenes, and carbenoids; as well as the the pericyclic reactions of organosulfur compounds.
Chemists, biochemists, and students taking related courses will find the book useful. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit. If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website.
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Authors: Eric Block. Editors: Alfred T. Blomquist Harry H. Imprint: Academic Press. Published Date: 1st January Page Count: Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices.
Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including Kindle. Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Powered by. You are connected as. Connect with:.Food bioactive compounds are extranutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in foods.
They are being intensively studied to evaluate their effects on health. Many bioactive compounds have been discovered. These compounds vary widely in chemical structure and function and are grouped accordingly. Phenolic compounds, including different subcategories, are present in all plants and have been studied extensively in cereals, legumes, nuts, olive oil, vegetables, fruits, tea, and red wine. Other bioactive compounds, including carotenoids and organosulfur compounds, have antioxidant properties, and some studies have demonstrated their favorable effects on thrombosis, tumorogenesis, cancer, and others diseases.
In summary, numerous bioactive compounds appear to have beneficial health effects. Much scientific research needs to be conducted before we can begin making science-based dietary recommendations. Despite this, there is sufficient evidence to recommend consuming food sources rich in bioactive compounds. From a practical perspective, this translates to recommending a diet rich in a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, oils, and nuts.
Therefore, the current issue will be focused on identifying as well as understanding the mechanistic role of food bioactive compounds in a range of human pathologies. The aim of this special issue is to attract original research articles, clinical studies, and review articles describing the current findings on therapeutically promising food bioactive compounds. We invite authors to submit articles that explore aspects of the therapeutic potential of food bioactive compounds.
We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID Journal overview. Special Issues. Publishing date. Lead Editor. Anderson J. Teodoro 1. Download Special Issue. Description Food bioactive compounds are extranutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in foods.
Jeganathan Ramesh Babu. Jianjun Lei. Kaikai Li. Yifan Zhu. Xu Yang Haiyu Ji Anjun Liu.
Supaporn Muchimapura. Li Kuang. Diana Fiorentini. First 1 2 3. Journal metrics.These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days.
Types of Phytochemicals and their Effects on the Human Body
Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Lithium metal represents an ultimate anode material of lithium batteries for its high energy density.
However, its large negative redox potential and reactive nature can trigger electrolyte decomposition and dendrite formation, causing unstable cycling and short circuit of batteries. Herein, we engineer a resilient solid electrolyte interphase on the Li anode by compositing the battery separator with organosulfur compounds and inorganic salts from garlic. These compounds take part in battery reactions to suppress dendrite growth through reversible electrochemistry and attenuate ionic concentration gradient.
When the Li anode and the separator are paired with the LiFePO 4 cathode, one obtains a battery delivering long-term cycling stability of cycles, a rate capacity of mAh g —1 at 10 C 2. Additionally, with high-loading 20 mg cm —2 LiFePO 4 cathodes, an areal capacity of 3. The American Chemical Society holds a copyright ownership interest in any copyrightable Supporting Information. Files available from the ACS website may be downloaded for personal use only.
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More by Bismark Boateng. More by Yupei Han. More by Cheng Zhen. More by Guangfeng Zeng. More by Ning Chen. More by Dongjiang Chen. More by Chao Feng.
More by Jiecai Han. More by Jie Xiong.Studies during the last two decades have revealed the involvement of epigenetic modifications in the development of human cancer. It is now recognized that the interplay of DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification, and non-coding RNAs can interact with genetic defects to drive tumorigenesis. In addition to the recent approval of several epigenetic therapies in the treatment of human cancer, emerging studies have indicated that dietary phytochemicals might exert cancer chemopreventive effects by targeting epigenetic mechanisms.
The latest findings, published in the past three years regarding the effects of dietary phytochemicals in modulating epigenetic mechanisms will also be discussed. Cancer is a disease involving dynamic changes in the genome.
The activation of oncogenes and the loss of function of tumor suppressor genes due to genetic mutations have long been considered the driving force of neoplasia [ 1 ]. However, the important contribution of epigenetic events to the malignant phenotype has been recognized with the help of significant advancements in the field of cancer epigenetics [ 2 ].
These heritable alterations are primarily established and maintained through cell differentiation and division, enabling the cells with the same genetic information to have distinct identities. The major epigenetic mechanisms for regulating these heritable gene alterations are the methylation of cytosine bases in DNA, covalent modifications of histones, and post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs miRNAs [ 2 ]. The disruption of these epigenetic modifications is associated with abnormalities of various signaling pathways and can lead to the induction and maintenance of many disease states, including cancer [ 5 ].
It is now widely accepted that epigenetic abnormalities and genetic alterations in cancer cells may interact at all stages to initiate and promote cancer [ 67 ]. In contrast to genetic mutations, epigenetic modifications are potentially reversible.
For example, genes with repressed transcriptional activity by epigenetic silencing can be reactivated through epigenetic interventions because the genes themselves are still intact, whereas genetic mutations are permanent.
This fact may explain why increasing attention and effort had been focused on the discovery and development of epigenetic-targeted therapeutics to treat cancer in recent years. To date, several small-molecule epigenetic therapies targeting chromatin-modifying enzymes have been developed and approved for cancer treatment by the U. A number of clinical trials are also underway with these agents and many other newly developed epigenetic agents in a variety of cancer types.
Moreover, the synergistic effects between epigenetic drugs and conventional antitumor therapies are quite promising [ 9 ]. Other than these small-molecule agents, accumulating evidence suggests that the epigenetic landscape is largely influenced by dietary and environmental factors [ 10 ]. With their relatively low toxicity, feasible long exposure, and promising effects observed in vitro and in vivo [ 1112 ], dietary phytochemicals may become potential chemopreventive agents by targeting epigenetic modifications.
In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms that occur during carcinogenesis and highlight their potential roles in cancer chemoprevention. Studies published in the past three years regarding the impact of dietary chemopreventive phytochemicals in modulating epigenetic alterations will also be reviewed and discussed.
CpG dinucleotides are not evenly distributed across the entire genome but are clustered in short regions known as CpG islands that are 0.